Методичка по англ. яз. аспирантура
the House of Commons
the House of Lords
St. Paul’s Cathedral
собор Св. Павла
Learned societies and independent scientific institutions play a large part in promoting the sciences in Britain, although they do very little actual research.
Most pure research is conducted in the universities, which also play an essential part in maintaining the supply of trained specialists. The learned societies play an important part in the discussion and publication of the results of research.
At present there are over 900 learned scientific societies in Britain with approximately 400 scientific publications.
The traditional method of scientific publication, in which results are written in papers and published in journals, is still the main means of communication among scientists. The leading learned societies have for long been important agencies for communicating scientific information. The most eminent of the learned societies are:
The Royal Society which was founded in 1660. Its present activities include the holding of the scientific meetings, publication of research work, mainly in the “Philosophical Transactions” and the “Proceedings”, the delivery of lectures, the presentation of medals.
The Royal Society of Arts which was founded in 1754. Its principal object has been to promote the progress of all departments of science. It deals with scientific, artistic, technical, industrial and commercial problems. The society regularly holds meetings and publishes a monthly journal.
The British Association for the Advancement of Science which was founded in 1831 to promote general interest in science and its application. One of the chief activities is the annual meetings attended by many young students as well as by eminent scientists. Its 14 sections cover the whole range of pure and applied science and there is a division for studying social and international relations of science.
Words and Expressions to Remember:
human sciences, the humanities
scientific worker, the scientist
науковець, дослідник, вчений
науковець (гуманітарні науки)
to be a scientist (scholar)
to do scientific work
вести наукову роботу
analysis (pl. –ses)
дослідження, наукова дисципліна, наукова стаття, монографія
дані, факти, відомості
дослідження, праця, наукова доповідь
записки наукового товариства (засідання)
to work out
вирішувати (завдання), розробляти (план)
to tackle the problem
взятися за справу, приступити до вирішення проблем
подати на розгляд
продуктивний, ефективний, кваліфікований
address, lecture (on)
theme of the conference
topics for discussion
питання для обговорення
participant, delegate, member
The main way in which research workers and higher school teachers get their scientific training is the post-graduate course. Young people who graduate from schools of higher learning and want to do a post-graduate course take examinations in Philosophy, a special subject, a foreign language, and a computer science. For 3 years a post-graduate student preparing for his candidate’s degree takes an advanced course on the master’s fundamentals and passes exams in them., studies under the guidance of prominent scientists and researchers.
He has to carry out a definite programme of research, obtain new scientific findings, and present his conclusions before a scientific council of the respective higher school or research institution.
In our country we also have an extra-mural course of post-graduate training for people who want to do scientific research but do not want to leave work.
All post-graduate study is free of charge. Those who take a full-time post-graduate course get state allowances.
To receive the degree of Doctor of Science, one has to carry out an absolutely independent major programme of research which, besides yielding new findings should be devoted to an important problem and present some significant scientific conclusions. Following its publication the dissertation is defended publicly by the author before a scientific council entitled to consider doctoral dissertations.
The so-called “beamed” post-graduate course was introduced to train candidates of science, it differs from the regular system in method of student selection. Under this variant, higher schools, scientific research institutions and enterprises are entitled to send their stuff members to post-graduate course and after finishing it, the new candidates are obliged to return to their former place of work.
In general the system of selecting candidates for post-graduate studies and future research work is being improved. More certified inventors and authors of scientific papers are now admitted.
The State provides young people with everything necessary to prepare for a scientific career and enable them to make important contributions to the development of science.
Words and Expressions to Remember:
scientific (research) worker
to do (to take) a post-graduate course
навчатися в аспірантурі
extra-mural course of post-graduate training
post-graduate (research) student
to grant (to offer) smb. a research (post-graduate)
надати можливість кому-небудь навчатись в аспірантурі
under the guidance (supervision) of
самостійне наукове дослідження
to present one’s conclusion
подати свої висновки
“beamed” post-graduate course
to receive the degree
одержати вчений ступінь
to defend the thesis
to yield new findings
подати нові дані
by secret ballot
to bestow the scientific degree to the applicant
присудити науковий ступінь пошукувачу
the council’s ruling
рішення вченої ради
to be endorsed by
the Higher Certification Commission
Вища Атестаційна Комісія (ВАК)
(Surname, Name). Social and cultural aspects of organization parks activities in foreign countries. Manuscript.
Thesis on competing a candidate’s degree of pedagogical sciences by speciality 13.00.06- Theory, Methods and Organization of Cultural and Educational Activity. Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts, Kyiv, 1999.
The dissertation is devoted to determination of the historical and theoretical preconditions for formation the park culture as social and cultural system, its modern state, tendencies of development; the substantiation of the concept «park culture » is given as an indivisible part of leisure and recreation system, which is strongly interrelated to general processes in cultural and social life of the society, typology of parks as multi-functional social and cultural establishments is determined, and their place and role within the social and cultural sphere of a society are defined.
The social and cultural aspects of increasing the efficiency of park activity are revealed; the peculiarities and laws of its functioning are determined, the priority value of parks among the other social and cultural institutions, their integrated structure, and multifunctionality are convincingly proved; the principles, functions, directions and technologies, models of cultural, educational, and leisure activity of different types of parks and recreational zones are considered.
Key words: park culture, social and cultural system, model, culture and leisure activity.
Редакційно-видавничий відділ КНУКіМ
Тираж 100 пр.
Київ, вул. Чигоріна, 14.