електронна техніка

chemical industry

хімічна промисловість

aircraft industry

авіаційна промисловість

spacecraft industry

космічна промисловість

to rule

правити

the House of Commons

палата громад

the House of Lords

палата лордів

cradle

колиска

St. Paul’s Cathedral

собор Св. Павла

Westminster Abbey

Вестмінстерське абатство

Text 6

Science in Britain

Learned societies and independent scientific institutions play a large part in promoting the sciences in Britain, although they do very little actual research.

Most pure research is conducted in the universities, which also play an essential part in maintaining the supply of trained specialists. The learned societies play an important part in the discussion and publication of the results of research.

At present there are over 900 learned scientific societies in Britain with approximately 400 scientific publications.

The traditional method of scientific publication, in which results are written in papers and published in journals, is still the main means of communication among scientists. The leading learned societies have for long been important agencies for communicating scientific information. The most eminent of the learned societies are:

The Royal Society which was founded in 1660. Its present activities include the holding of the scientific meetings, publication of research work, mainly in the “Philosophical Transactions” and the “Proceedings”, the delivery of lectures, the presentation of medals.

The Royal Society of Arts which was founded in 1754. Its principal object has been to promote the progress of all departments of science. It deals with scientific, artistic, technical, industrial and commercial problems. The society regularly holds meetings and publishes a monthly journal.

The British Association for the Advancement of Science which was founded in 1831 to promote general interest in science and its application. One of the chief activities is the annual meetings attended by many young students as well as by eminent scientists. Its 14 sections cover the whole range of pure and applied science and there is a division for studying social and international relations of science.

Words and Expressions to Remember:

learned societies

наукові товариства

science

наука

human sciences, the humanities

гуманітарні науки

scientific worker, the scientist

науковець, дослідник, вчений

scholar

науковець (гуманітарні науки)

to be a scientist (scholar)

бути науковцем

to do scientific work

вести наукову роботу

research, investigation

дослідження

analysis (pl. –ses)

аналіз

study

дослідження, наукова дисципліна, наукова стаття, монографія

approach

підхід

data

дані, факти, відомості

paper (on)

дослідження, праця, наукова доповідь

journal

журнал

proceedings

записки наукового товариства (засідання)

to describe

описувати, характеризувати

to quote

цитувати, посилатися

to work out

вирішувати (завдання), розробляти (план)

to tackle the problem

взятися за справу, приступити до вирішення проблем

to submit

подати на розгляд

efficient

продуктивний, ефективний, кваліфікований

short abstract

стислі тези

address, lecture (on)

доповідь

theme of the conference

тема конференції

topics for discussion

питання для обговорення

organizing committee

організаційний комітет

participant, delegate, member

учасник (конференції)

social programme

соціальна програма

Text 7

Post-Graduate Training

The main way in which research workers and higher school teachers get their scientific training is the post-graduate course. Young people who graduate from schools of higher learning and want to do a post-graduate course take examinations in Philosophy, a special subject, a foreign language, and a computer science. For 3 years a post-graduate student preparing for his candidate’s degree takes an advanced course on the master’s fundamentals and passes exams in them., studies under the guidance of prominent scientists and researchers.

He has to carry out a definite programme of research, obtain new scientific findings, and present his conclusions before a scientific council of the respective higher school or research institution.

In our country we also have an extra-mural course of post-graduate training for people who want to do scientific research but do not want to leave work.

All post-graduate study is free of charge. Those who take a full-time post-graduate course get state allowances.

To receive the degree of Doctor of Science, one has to carry out an absolutely independent major programme of research which, besides yielding new findings should be devoted to an important problem and present some significant scientific conclusions. Following its publication the dissertation is defended publicly by the author before a scientific council entitled to consider doctoral dissertations.

The so-called “beamed” post-graduate course was introduced to train candidates of science, it differs from the regular system in method of student selection. Under this variant, higher schools, scientific research institutions and enterprises are entitled to send their stuff members to post-graduate course and after finishing it, the new candidates are obliged to return to their former place of work.

In general the system of selecting candidates for post-graduate studies and future research work is being improved. More certified inventors and authors of scientific papers are now admitted.

The State provides young people with everything necessary to prepare for a scientific career and enable them to make important contributions to the development of science.

Words and Expressions to Remember:

post-graduate course

аспірантура

scientific (research) worker

науковий співробітник

to do (to take) a post-graduate course

навчатися в аспірантурі

extra-mural course of post-graduate training

заочна аспірантура

post-graduate (research) student

аспірант

to grant (to offer) smb. a research (post-graduate)

надати можливість кому-небудь навчатись в аспірантурі

associate professor

доцент

dissertation abstract

автореферат

under the guidance (supervision) of

під керівництвом

independent research

самостійне наукове дослідження

to present one’s conclusion

подати свої висновки

scientific council

вчена рада

“beamed” post-graduate course

цільова аспірантура

to receive the degree

одержати вчений ступінь

to defend the thesis

захистити дисертацію

to yield new findings

подати нові дані

to consider

розглянути

by secret ballot

таємним голосуванням

to bestow the scientific degree to the applicant

присудити науковий ступінь пошукувачу

the council’s ruling

рішення вченої ради

to be endorsed by

бути затвердженим

the Higher Certification Commission

Вища Атестаційна Комісія (ВАК)

ДОДАТОК 8

Зразок складання анотації до автореферату дисертації

(Surname, Name). Social and cultural aspects of organization parks activities in foreign countries. Manuscript.

Thesis on competing a candidate’s degree of pedagogical sciences by speciality 13.00.06- Theory, Methods and Organization of Cultural and Educational Activity. Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts, Kyiv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to determination of the historical and theoretical preconditions for formation the park culture as social and cultural system, its modern state, tendencies of development; the substantiation of the concept «park culture » is given as an indivisible part of leisure and recreation system, which is strongly interrelated to general processes in cultural and social life of the society, typology of parks as multi-functional social and cultural establishments is determined, and their place and role within the social and cultural sphere of a society are defined.

The social and cultural aspects of increasing the efficiency of park activity are revealed; the peculiarities and laws of its functioning are determined, the priority value of parks among the other social and cultural institutions, their integrated structure, and multifunctionality are convincingly proved; the principles, functions, directions and technologies, models of cultural, educational, and leisure activity of different types of parks and recreational zones are considered.

Key words: park culture, social and cultural system, model, culture and leisure activity.

ПЕРЕДМОВА4

Мета і завдання курсу5

Навчально-методичні матеріали з курсу8

Форми поточного контролю і вимоги до екзамену9

Зміст кандидатського екзамену10

ТЕМАТИЧНИЙ ПЛАН11

Структура теоретичного курсу з англійської мови14

Реферат з англомовної фахової літератури16

Реферат з проблем наукового дослідження20

Наукова доповідь22

Деякі сучасні тенденції в англійській науковій мові29

Додаток 137

Додаток 262

Додаток 363

Додаток471

Додаток 577

Додаток 678

Додаток 782

Додаток 899

Редакційно-видавничий відділ КНУКіМ

Тираж 100 пр.

Київ, вул. Чигоріна, 14.



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